Click image to enlarge Description Franklin Electronic Publishers, Incorporated (formerly Franklin Computer Corporation) is an American consumer electronics manufacturer based in Burlington, New Jersey, founded in 1981. Since the mid-1980s it has primarily created and sold hand-held electronic references, such as spelling correctors, dictionaries, translation devices, medical references and Bibles. It was publicly traded on the American Stock Exchange under the symbol FEP until September 30, 2009 when it merged with Saunders Acquisition Corporation. Franklin was originally named Franklin Computer Corporation. It was a manufacturer of clones of the Apple II series computer, which it first marketed in 1982. In early 1982, Franklin released the Franklin Ace 100, and in March of the same year, the Franklin Ace 1000; they were very close copies of the Apple II and Apple II Plus computers, respectively. The motherboard design is nearly identical and Franklin also copied Apple's ROMs. Two months later, Apple Computer sued Franklin for copyright violation. Franklin initially won. Franklin followed with the Ace 1200, which included two built-in 5¼" floppy drives and a Zilog Z80 processor for CP/ M compatibility—a popular third-party option for the Apple II. The Ace 1200 was identical to the Ace 1000, but with the addition of a built-in floppy drive and four expansion cards pre-installed (one of which offered color video; the 1000 was monochrome). In August 1983, a court ruled against Franklin, which had argued that because computer code generally did not exist in printed form, it could not be copyrighted. Franklin freely admitted it had copied Apple's ROM and operating system code. However, Franklin was able to get an injunction that allowed it to continue marketing its computers. This case had lasting implications, setting precedent for copyright and reverse engineering. The case was still frequently cited more than 30 years after the August 1983 ruling. Starting in October 1985, Franklin released a second-generation line of Apple II clones, consisting of the Ace 2000 (based on the Apple IIe) and Ace 500 (based on the Apple IIc). These included more memory, as well as offering many features unique to the Apple IIe and Apple IIc, all while undercutting Apple's price. Franklin's last Apple II clone, the Ace 2200, sported a detached keyboard and dual internal 5.25-inch floppy disk drives. It was released in the 1987–1988 time frame. Franklin also released a pair of IBM PC compatible computers, the Franklin PC6000 and PC8000, during 1986–1988. Both were based on the Intel 8088 running at 4.77 MHz. The PC6000 had 512 K of RAM and a single floppy drive, while the PC8000 had 640 K and dual drives. These matched the most common configurations of the time. Soon after the Ace 2200's release, Apple was able to force Franklin out of the desktop computer market entirely, including its IBM-compatible PCs. As a result, the only Apple-compatible computer that remained on the market was VTech's Laser 128. With the loss of its desktop computer business, Franklin concentrated on its handheld line, which it had introduced in 1986. In 1987, Franklin released the Spelling Ace, which could provide spelling corrections to 80,000 English words based on technology from Proximity Technology. Franklin also released its Language Master device, which included spelling correction, dictionary definitions and a thesaurus. In 1988, Franklin acquired Proximity Technology. In 1989, Franklin released an electronic version of the Bible in the King James, Revised Standard] and New International versions. Johnny Cash was a spokesperson for the company,recording Bible passages for their line of electronic Bibles. In 1995 Franklin launched its Bookman product line, which came with an installed database and included a slot for plugging in a second electronic book. Prices varied depending on the title. Previously, the Digital Book System ( DBS) product was a player only, with two slots for electronic book cards. Franklin collaborated with Bien Logic to create educational titles for the Bookman platform. Apple Computer, Inc. v. Franklin Computer Corp., 714 F.2d 1240 (3d Cir. 1983), was the first time an appellate level court in the United States held that a computer's operating system could be protected by copyright. As second impact, this ruling clarified that binary code, the machine readable form of software, was copyrightable too and not only the human-readable source code form of software. Franklin Computer Corporation introduced the Franklin Ace 1000, a clone of Apple Computer's Apple II, in 1982. Apple quickly determined that substantial portions of the Franklin ROM and operating system had been copied directly from Apple's versions, and on May 12, 1982, filed suit in the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania. It cited the presence of some of the same embedded strings, such as the name " James Huston" (an Apple programmer), and " Applesoft," on both the Apple and Franklin system disks. Franklin admitted that it had copied Apple's software but argued that it would have been impractical to independently write its own versions of the software and maintain compatibility, although it said it had written its own version of Apple's copy utility and was working on its own versions of other software. Franklin argued that because Apple's software existed only in machine-readable form, and not in printed form, and because some of the software did not contain copyright notices, it could be freely copied. The Apple II firmware was likened to a machine part whose form was dictated entirely by the requirements of compatibility (that is, an exact copy of Apple's ROM was the only part that would "fit" in an Apple-compatible computer and enable its intended function), and was therefore not copyrightable. The district court found in favor of Franklin. However, Apple appealed the ruling to the United States Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit which, in a separate case decided three days after Franklin won at the lower level, determined that both a program existing only in a written form unreadable to humans (e.g. object code) and one embedded on a ROM were protected by copyright. ( See Williams Elec., Inc., v. Artic Int'l, Inc., 685 F.2d 870 (1982)). The Court of Appeals overturned the district court's ruling in Franklin by applying its holdings in Williams and going further to hold that operating systems were also copyrightable. Hence Apple was able to force Franklin to withdraw its clones by 1988. The company later brought non-infringing clones to market, but as these models were only partially compatible with the Apple II, and as the Apple II architecture was by this time outdated in any case, they enjoyed little success in the marketplace. Payment Please contact us if you would like to pay by VISA, Master Card, or Discover Card. Shipping Shipping: $5.50 Insured in the U. S. only Price will be reduced based on value and size of item (s) Overseas: $16.50 Registered Mail ( We will combine purchases) About Us PLEASE CONTACT US BEFORE GIVING NEGATIVE DETAILED SHIPPING FEEDBACK IF THERE IS ANY QUESTION OR ISSUES WITH SHIPPING PRICES. WE ARE NOT TRYING TO MAKE MONEY ON SHIPPING, SO IF YOU FEEL THE PRICE IS UNFAIR, PLEASE LET US KNOW. WE STRIVE TO OFFER EXCEPTIONAL SERVICE AND HOPE TO HAVE YOU AS A REPEAT BUYER. 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SaleClic specifics for: PA. Franklin Electronic Publishers, Inc 1994 SPECIMEN Stock Cert XF green Seller: archivesonline Reviews: 8662 Positive Feedback: 99.8% Location: River Edge, New Jersey Ships to: Worldwide Item: 352795793869